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Int Stat Rev. 2010 Apr;78(1):40-64.

A Review of Hot Deck Imputation for Survey Non-response.

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Division of Biostatistics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.


Hot deck imputation is a method for handling missing data in which each missing value is replaced with an observed response from a "similar" unit. Despite being used extensively in practice, the theory is not as well developed as that of other imputation methods. We have found that no consensus exists as to the best way to apply the hot deck and obtain inferences from the completed data set. Here we review different forms of the hot deck and existing research on its statistical properties. We describe applications of the hot deck currently in use, including the U.S. Census Bureau's hot deck for the Current Population Survey (CPS). We also provide an extended example of variations of the hot deck applied to the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Some potential areas for future research are highlighted.

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