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Ultramicroscopy. 2011 Jul;111(8):1117-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2011.02.005. Epub 2011 Feb 25.

Extended ptychography in the transmission electron microscope: possibilities and limitations.

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Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ, UK.


The extended-ptychographical iterative engine (e-PIE) is a recently developed powerful phase retrieval algorithm which can be used to measure the phase transfer function of a specimen and overcome conventional lens resolution limits. The major improvement over PIE is the ability to reconstruct simultaneously both the object and illumination functions, robustness to noise and speed of convergence. The technique has proven to be successful at optical and X-ray wavelengths and we describe here experimental results in transmission electron microscopy supported by corresponding simulations. These simulations show the possibilities - even with strong phase objects - and limitations of ptychography; in particular issues arising from poorly-defined probe positions.

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