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PLoS Med. 2011 Jun;8(6):e1001052. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001052. Epub 2011 Jun 28.

The effect of handwashing at recommended times with water alone and with soap on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: an observational study.

Author information

1
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. sluby@icddrb.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Standard public health interventions to improve hand hygiene in communities with high levels of child mortality encourage community residents to wash their hands with soap at five separate key times, a recommendation that would require mothers living in impoverished households to typically wash hands with soap more than ten times per day. We analyzed data from households that received no intervention in a large prospective project evaluation to assess the relationship between observed handwashing behavior and subsequent diarrhea.

METHODS AND FINDINGS:

Fieldworkers conducted a 5-hour structured observation and a cross-sectional survey in 347 households from 50 villages across rural Bangladesh in 2007. For the subsequent 2 years, a trained community resident visited each of the enrolled households every month and collected information on the occurrence of diarrhea in the preceding 48 hours among household residents under the age of 5 years. Compared with children living in households where persons prepared food without washing their hands, children living in households where the food preparer washed at least one hand with water only (odds ratio [OR]=0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.57-1.05), washed both hands with water only (OR=0.67; 95% CI=0.51-0.89), or washed at least one hand with soap (OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.19-0.47) had less diarrhea. In households where residents washed at least one hand with soap after defecation, children had less diarrhea (OR=0.45; 95% CI=0.26-0.77). There was no significant association between handwashing with or without soap before feeding a child, before eating, or after cleaning a child's anus who defecated and subsequent child diarrhea.

CONCLUSIONS:

These observations suggest that handwashing before preparing food is a particularly important opportunity to prevent childhood diarrhea, and that handwashing with water alone can significantly reduce childhood diarrhea.

PMID:
21738452
PMCID:
PMC3125291
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pmed.1001052
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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