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Zookeys. 2011;(100):193-201. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.100.1527. Epub 2011 May 20.

Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds.

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Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, via P. Bucci, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy.


Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages.


antennal glands; carabid beetles; defensive secretion; pygidial gland

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