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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75(7):1259-67. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

Greater effectiveness of ε-viniferin in red wine than its monomer resveratrol for inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration.

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Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.


Resveratrol is a strong candidate for explaining an irreversible correlation between red wine consumption and coronary heart disease. The present study examined the effect of ε-viniferin, a dehydrodimer of resveratrol, on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), because ε-viniferin functions are poorly understood in spite of its comparable content to resveratrol in red wines and grapes. Both ε-viniferin and resveratrol inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-induced cell proliferation, migration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, in addition to inducing nitric oxide generation. ε-Viniferin was more effective than resveratrol in these effects, except for inhibiting ROS production. The compounds also increased the expression of the antioxidant enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1, via transcription factor Nrf2. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway was implicated in resveratrol-dependent nuclear Nrf2 accumulation, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 were involved in ε-viniferin-induced Nrf2 accumulation. These data suggest that ε-viniferin may function more effectively than resveratrol in different mechanisms and cooperatively with resveratrol in preventing atherosclerosis.

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