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Chemosphere. 2011 Aug;84(7):950-6. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.06.006. Epub 2011 Jul 5.

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in rice straw smoke and their origins in Japan.

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1
Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo-shi, Saitama 347-0115, Japan. minomo.kotaro@pref.saitama.lg.jp

Abstract

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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