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PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e21381. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021381. Epub 2011 Jun 22.

Interleukin-8 is activated in patients with chronic liver diseases and associated with hepatic macrophage accumulation in human liver fibrosis.

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Department of Medicine III, University Hospital, Aachen, Germany.



Interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils and contributes to acute liver inflammation. Much less is known about IL-8 in chronic liver diseases (CLD), but elevated levels were reported from alcoholic and hepatitis C-related CLD. We investigated the regulation of IL-8, its receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 and possible IL-8 responding cells in CLD patients.


Serum IL-8 levels were measured in CLD patients (n = 200) and healthy controls (n = 141). Intrahepatic IL-8, CXCR1 and CXCR2 gene expression was quantified from liver samples (n = 41), alongside immunohistochemical neutrophil (MPO) and macrophage (CD68) stainings. CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression was analyzed on purified monocytes from patients (n = 111) and controls (n = 31). In vitro analyses explored IL-8 secretion by different leukocyte subsets.


IL-8 serum levels were significantly increased in CLD patients, especially in end-stage cirrhosis. Interestingly, patients with cholestatic diseases exhibited highest IL-8 serum concentrations. IL-8 correlated with liver function, inflammatory cytokines and non-invasive fibrosis markers. Intrahepatically, IL-8 and CXCR1 expression were strongly up-regulated. However, intrahepatic IL-8 could only be associated to neutrophil infiltration in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In non-cholestatic cirrhosis, increased IL-8 and CXCR1 levels were associated with hepatic macrophage accumulation. In line, CXCR1, but not CXCR2 or CXCR3, expression was increased on circulating monocytes from cirrhotic patients. Moreover, monocyte-derived macrophages from CLD patients, especially the non-classical CD16⁺ subtype, displayed enhanced IL-8 secretion in vitro.


IL-8 is strongly activated in CLD, thus likely contributing to hepatic inflammation. Our study suggests a novel role of IL-8 for recruitment and activation of hepatic macrophages via CXCR1 in human liver cirrhosis.

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