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Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2011;111:9-14. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-0693-8_2.

Comparison of different preclinical models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

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Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University, School of Medicine, Risley Hall, Room 219, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.


Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating type of stroke. It is characterized by spontaneous bleeding in brain parenchyma and is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Presently, there is neither an effective therapy to increase survival after intracerebral hemorrhage nor a treatment to improve the quality of life for survivors. A reproducible animal model of spontaneous ICH mimicking the development of acute and delayed brain injury after ICH is an invaluable tool for improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ICH-induced brain injury and evaluating potential therapeutic interventions. A number of models have been developed. While different species have been studied, rodents have become the most popular and widely utilized animals used in ICH research. The most often used methods for experimental induction of ICH are injection of bacterial collagenase and direct injection of blood into the brain parenchyma. The "balloon" method has also been used to mimic ICH for study. In this summary, we intend to provide a comparative overview of the technical methods, aspects, and pathologic findings of these types of ICH models. We will also focus on the similarities and differences among these rodent models, achievements in technical aspects of the ICH model, and discuss important aspects in selecting relevant models for study.

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