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Crit Care Med. 2011 Dec;39(12):2705-10. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31822668ba.

Sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves resuscitation rates after prolonged untreated cardiac arrest in two porcine models.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation consists of active compression-decompression, an impedance threshold device, abdominal binding, and large intravenous doses of sodium nitroprusside. We hypothesize that sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation will significantly increase carotid blood flow and return of spontaneous circulation compared to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation after prolonged ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest.

DESIGN:

Prospective randomized animal study.

SETTING:

Hennepin County Medical Center Animal Laboratory.

SUBJECTS:

Forty Yorkshire female farm-bred pigs weighing 32 ± 2 kg.

INTERVENTIONS:

In protocol A, 24 isoflurane-anesthetized pigs underwent 15 mins of untreated ventricular fibrillation and were subsequently randomized to receive standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 6), active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation + impedance threshold device (n = 6), or sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 12) for up to 15 mins. First defibrillation was attempted at minute 6 of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In protocol B, a separate group of 16 pigs underwent 10 mins of untreated ventricular fibrillation followed by 3 mins of chest compression only cardiopulmonary resuscitation followed by countershock-induced pulseless electrical activity, after which animals were randomized to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 8) or sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 8).

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

The primary end point was carotid blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation. Secondary end points included end-tidal CO2 as well as coronary and cerebral perfusion pressure. After prolonged untreated ventricular fibrillation, sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation demonstrated superior rates of return of spontaneous circulation when compared to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation and active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation + impedance threshold device (12 of 12, 0 of 6, and 0 of 6 respectively, p < .01). In animals with pulseless electrical activity, sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation increased return of spontaneous circulation rates when compared to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In both groups, carotid blood flow, coronary perfusion pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and end-tidal CO2 were increased with sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

CONCLUSIONS:

In pigs, sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation significantly increased return of spontaneous circulation rates, as well as carotid blood flow and end-tidal CO2, when compared to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation or active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation + impedance threshold device.

PMID:
21725236
PMCID:
PMC3199027
DOI:
10.1097/CCM.0b013e31822668ba
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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