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Gastroenterology. 2011 Nov;141(5):1802-12. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.06.057. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Intestinal dendritic cells specialize to activate transforming growth factor-β and induce Foxp3+ regulatory T cells via integrin αvβ8.

Author information

1
Manchester Immunology Group and Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

The intestinal immune system is tightly regulated to prevent responses against the many nonpathogenic antigens in the gut. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a cytokine that maintains intestinal homeostasis, in part by inducing Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress immune responses. TGF-β is expressed at high levels in the gastrointestinal tract as a latent complex that must be activated. However, the pathways that control TGF-β activation in the intestine are poorly defined. We investigated the cellular and molecular pathways that control activation of TGF-β and induction of Foxp3(+) Tregs in the intestines of mice to maintain immune homeostasis.

METHODS:

Subsets of intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) were examined for their capacity to activate TGF-β and induce Foxp3(+) Tregs in vitro. Mice were fed oral antigen, and induction of Foxp3(+) Tregs was measured.

RESULTS:

A tolerogenic subset of intestinal DCs that express CD103 were specialized to activate latent TGF-β, and induced Foxp3(+) Tregs independently of the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid. The integrin αvβ8, which activates TGF-β, was significantly up-regulated on CD103(+) intestinal DCs. DCs that lack expression of integrin αvβ8 had reduced ability to activate latent TGF-β and induce Foxp3(+) Tregs in vitro and in vivo.

CONCLUSIONS:

CD103(+) intestinal DCs promote a tolerogenic environment in the intestines of mice via integrin αvβ8-mediated activation of TGF-β.

PMID:
21723222
PMCID:
PMC3507624
DOI:
10.1053/j.gastro.2011.06.057
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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