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Immunol Res. 2011 Oct;51(1):116-22. doi: 10.1007/s12026-011-8235-9.

Immunologically restricted patients exhibit a pronounced inflammation and inadequate response to hypoxia in fracture hematomas.

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Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charité University Hospital, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany.


For patients who are known to have an impaired immune system, bone healing is often impaired. Therefore, it has been suggested that an effectively functioning immune system will have an influence on the quality of bone healing. Here, we demonstrate that cells within the fracture hematoma of immunologically restricted patients (1) exhibit a disturbed osteogenic differentiation (normal SPP1 but diminished RUNX2 expression), (2) show a strong inflammatory reaction (high IL8 and CXCR4), and (3) react on local hypoxia (high expression of HIF1A) but with inadequate target gene responses (diminished LDHA and PGK1 expression). Thus, it is already within the early inflammatory phase of fracture healing that the local gene expression in fracture hematomas of immunologically restricted patients points toward a critical regeneration.

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