Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Eye (Lond). 2011 Oct;25(10):1251-61. doi: 10.1038/eye.2011.38. Epub 2011 Jul 1.

Congenital innervation dysgenesis syndrome (CID)/congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs).

Author information

  • 1Department of Opthalmology, Milton Keynes Hospital NHS FT, Milton Keynes, Bucks, UK.


Congenital loss of innervation to the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs) can have a profound effect on the target muscle. This has been well recognised in Duane's retraction syndrome. However, it has been less emphasised in other congenital oculo-motor disorders. Such congenital ocular motor defects have been expanded to include DRS, congenital fibrosis of EOMs, monocular elevation defect, Möbius syndrome, as well as several other non-ocular muscles supplied by cranial nerves such as facial muscles. Such loss of innervation to motor muscles can be unified as a defined clinical entity, which can be labelled as congenital innervation dysgenesis syndrome or CID for short. CID may also affect other muscles supplied by nerves other than the cranial nerves and may be sensory as well as motor.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center