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Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2011 Oct;45(10):830-7. doi: 10.3109/00048674.2011.589044. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia.

Author information

1
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, St Vincent's Hospital, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065, Australia. winder@medstv.unimelb.edu.au

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Antipsychotic medications are a potential cause of hyperprolactinaemia and may be implicated in the development of pituitary adenomas. This review examines the effect of different antipsychotic medications on prolactin and sexual function, and provides practical guidelines for investigation and management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia.

METHOD:

Literature review.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:

Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia occurs overall in up to 70% of patients with schizophrenia, depending on the medications used. It is associated with significant levels of hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction, which in general relates to the degree of prolactin elevation. A consequence of the hypogonadism is clinically significant bone loss which may lead to osteoporosis and increased risk of minimal trauma fracture. Where the potentially offending drug cannot be safely withdrawn to document a normal prolactin, imaging with MRI should be undertaken to exclude a structural pituitary lesion. The management strategy of choice is switching to a prolactin-sparing antipsychotic. Sex steroid replacement can reverse many of the adverse effects including the hypogonadal symptoms and bone loss. Low dose dopamine agonist therapy should be used with caution as a third line treatment, since there have been cases of dopamine agonist-induced exacerbation of psychosis. There is a need for a randomised controlled trial of low dose dopamine agonist therapy versus sex steroid replacement to establish the relative safety and efficacy of each approach.

PMID:
21714721
DOI:
10.3109/00048674.2011.589044
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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