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Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011 Aug;55(8):1266-70. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201100132. Epub 2011 Jun 28.

Immunological evaluation of the alcohol-soluble protein fraction from gluten-free grains in relation to celiac disease.

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Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.


Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy with an immune basis. We established the immune reactivity of the alcohol-soluble fraction from two minor cereals (tef and millet) and two pseudocereals (amaranth and quinoa) which are believed to be nontoxic based on taxonomy. Grains were examined in intestinal T-cell lines (iTCLs), cultures of duodenal explants from HLA-DQ2(+) CD patients and HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice for signs of activation. Our data indicated that tef, millet, amaranth, and quinoa did not show any immune cross-reactivity toward wheat gliadin, and therefore confirming their safety in the diet of CD patients.

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