Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Chem Mater. 2011 Jun 14;23(11):2987-2993.

Plasmonic enhanced emissions from cubic NaYF(4):Yb: Er/Tm nanophosphors.

Author information

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Davis, 95616, USA.


A metal shell was used in this study to provide significant enhancement of the up-converted emission from cubic NaYF(4) nanoparticles, creating a valuable composite material for labeling in biology and other applications - use of the cubic form of the material obviates the need to undertake a high temperature transformation to the naturally more efficient hexagonal phase. The NaYF(4) matrix contained ytterbium sensitizer and an Erbium (Er) or Thulium (Tm) activator. The particle sizes of the as-synthesized nanoparticles were in the range of 20-40 nm with a gold shell thickness of 4-8 nm. The gold shell was macroscopically amorphous. The synthesis method was based on a citrate chelation. In this approach, we exploited the ability of the citrate ion to act as a reductant and stabilizer. Confining the citrate ion reductant on the nanophosphor surface rather than in the solution was critical to the gold shell formation. The plasmonic shell enhanced the up-conversion emission of Tm from visible and near-infrared regions by up to a factor of 8, in addition to imparting a visible color arising from the plasmon absorption of the gold shell. The up-conversion enhancement observed with Tm and Er were different for similar gold coverages, with local crystal field changes as a possible route to enhance up-conversion emission from high symmetry structural hosts. These novel up-converting nanophosphor particles combine the phosphor and features of a gold shell, providing a unique platform for many biological imaging and labeling applications.

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center