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Psychol Addict Behav. 2012 Jun;26(2):358-63. doi: 10.1037/a0024424. Epub 2011 Jun 27.

Expectancies regarding the interaction between smoking and substance use in alcohol-dependent smokers in early recovery.

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  • 1Mental Health Service, San Francisco VA Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA.


The purpose of this study was to investigate expectancies regarding the interaction between cigarette smoking and use of alcohol among alcohol-dependent smokers in early recovery, using the Nicotine and Other Substances Interaction Expectancies Questionnaire (NOSIE). Participants were 162 veterans, 97% male, with a mean age of 50 years, enrolled in a clinical trial aimed at determining the efficacy of an intensive smoking cessation intervention versus usual care. At baseline, participants were assessed on measures of smoking behavior, abstinence thoughts about alcohol and tobacco use, symptoms of depression, and smoking-substance use interaction expectancies. In addition, biologically verified abstinence from tobacco and alcohol was assessed at 26 weeks. Participants reported that they expected smoking to have less of an impact on substance use than substance use has on smoking (p < .001). Severity of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with the expectancy that smoking provides a way of coping with the urge to use other substances (p < .01). The expectation that smoking increases substance urges/use was predictive of prospectively measured and biologically verified abstinence from smoking at 26 weeks (p < .03). The results add to our knowledge of smoking-substance use interaction expectancies among alcohol-dependent smokers in early recovery and will inform the development of more effective counseling interventions for concurrent alcohol and tobacco use disorders.

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