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J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Aug 10;59(15):8187-92. doi: 10.1021/jf2018929. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

Subamolide E from Cinnamomum subavenium induces sub-G1 cell-cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis and reduces the migration ability of human melanoma cells.

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Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, San-Ming District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China.


The aim of this work was to investigate the anticancer cytotoxic effects of natural compound subamolide E on the human skin cancer melanoma A375.S2 cells. Subamolide E was isolated from Cinnamomum subavenium and demonstrated cytotoxicities in the cell-growth assay at concentration ranges from 0 to 100 μM at 24 h. Propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry analyses were used to evaluate cell-cycle distribution and found that subamolide E caused DNA damage in the sub-G1 phase with a dose-dependent manner after 24 h of treatment. According to the western blot result, subamolide-E-treated cells with the increase of caspase-dependent apoptotic proteins induced related pathway mechanisms. Subamolide E also showed antimigratory activities of A375.S2 cells on the wound-healing assay. Finally, subamolide E demonstrated minor cytotoxicities to normal human skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts); therefore, it is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against skin melanoma.

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