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Cornea. 2011 Sep;30(9):995-1002. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e31820770f4.

Pediatric ocular surface infections: a 5-year review of demographics, clinical features, risk factors, microbiological results, and treatment.

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Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.



To evaluate the clinical and microbiological profiles of pediatric patients with ocular surface infections requiring corneal or conjunctival scraping for diagnosis.


The medical records of 138 consecutive patients aged 18 years or younger who had undergone corneal or conjunctival scraping over a 5-year-period in a tertiary ophthalmic center were reviewed. Demographics, clinical features, risk factors, microbiological results, and treatment were recorded.


Ocular surface infections were classified into 4 groups: infectious keratitis (group 1); blepharokeratoconjunctivitis (group 2); conjunctivitis (group 3); and congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction or dacryocystitis (group 4). The groups had different mean ages of presentation, with group 4 presenting the youngest at 2 years and group 1 presenting the oldest at 14 years. Contact lens wear and blepharitis were the major risk factors. The positive culture rate was 60.9%, of which 65.5% were Gram-positive organisms. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common organisms (23.2%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.4%) and Staphylococcus aureus (8.0%). Microbial yield was highest in group 1 (86%) and lowest in group 3 (38.6%). There were 9 orthokeratology-related infectious keratitis cases (18%) and 9 chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum cases isolated.


With increasing contact lens wear in the pediatric and adolescent populations and the common occurrence of blepharokeratoconjunctivitis and staphylococcal ocular surface infections, parents and children should be highly vigilant with eyelid hygiene and contact lens practice.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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