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Trends Microbiol. 2011 Aug;19(8):382-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2011.05.007. Epub 2011 Jun 24.

Norovirus-host interaction: multi-selections by human histo-blood group antigens.

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Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, OH 45229-3039, USA.


The discovery of human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as receptors or ligands of noroviruses (NoVs) raises a question about the potential role of host factors in the evolution and diversity of NoVs. Recent structural analysis of selected strains in the two major genogroups of human NoVs (GI and GII) demonstrated highly conserved HBGA binding interfaces within the two groups but not between them, indicating convergent evolution of GI and GII NoVs. GI and GII NoVs are probably introduced to humans from different non-human hosts with the HBGAs as a common niche. Each genogroup has further diverged into multiple sub-lineages (genotypes) through selections by the polymorphic HBGAs of the hosts. An elucidation of such pathogen-host interaction, including determination of the phenotypes of NoV-HBGAs interaction for each genotype, is important in understanding the epidemiology, classification and disease control and prevention of NoVs. A model of this multi-selection of NoVs by HBGAs is proposed.

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