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Leuk Lymphoma. 2011 Nov;52(11):2097-104. doi: 10.3109/10428194.2011.589549. Epub 2011 Jun 24.

Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor-induced immune priming of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone with rituximab chemoimmunotherapy in previously untreated patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma.

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  • 1Rush University Medical Center, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.


Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to enhance CD20 antigen expression, augment antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and stimulate immune cell proliferation. This may lead to an improved anti-tumor effect of rituximab while reducing the severity of chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) in sequential combination with GM-CSF priming and rituximab in previously untreated patients (n = 39) with diffuse-large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). CHOP was administered every 21 days on day 1, GM-CSF 250 μg/m(2)/day on days 9 through 15, and rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on day 15 of each cycle. The overall response rate was 87%, with complete response in 64%. At a median follow-up of 84.3 months, the overall and progression-free survival rates were 54% and 49%, respectively. The most common toxicity was myelosuppression. Sequential combination of CHOP with GM-CSF priming and rituximab was feasible and effective, warranting further evaluation.

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