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J Appl Microbiol. 2011 Sep;111(3):652-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05086.x. Epub 2011 Jul 12.

Global transcriptional responses of Bacillus subtilis to xenocoumacin 1.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Biological Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Abstract

AIMS:

To determine the global transcriptional response of Bacillus subtilis to an antimicrobial agent, xenocoumacin 1 (Xcn1).

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Subinhibitory concentration of Xcn1 applied to B. subtilis was measured according to Hutter's method for determining optimal concentrations. cDNA microarray technology was used to study the global transcriptional response of B. subtilis to Xcn1. Real-time RT-PCR was employed to verify alterations in the transcript levels of six genes. The subinhibitory concentration was determined to be 1 μg ml(-1). The microarray data demonstrated that Xcn1 treatment of B. subtilis led to more than a 2.0-fold up-regulation of 480 genes and more than a 2.0-fold down-regulation of 479 genes (q ≤ 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

The transcriptional responses of B. subtilis to Xcn1 were determined, and several processes were affected by Xcn1. Additionally, cluster analysis of gene expression profiles after treatment with Xcn1 or 37 previously studied antibiotics indicated that Xcn1 has similar mechanisms of action to protein synthesis inhibitors.

SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:

These microarray data showed alterations of gene expression in B. subtilis after exposure to Xcn1. From the results, we identified various processes affected by Xcn1. This study provides a whole-genome perspective to elucidate the action of Xcn1 as a potential antimicrobial agent.

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