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Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Aug;22(8):1183-95. doi: 10.1007/s10552-011-9797-5. Epub 2011 Jun 22.

Dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

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Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 2007, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.



Few studies have evaluated the potential association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) by histologic subtype, and the results of these studies have been inconsistent.


A detailed history of dietary practices and food preferences was collected using a food frequency questionnaire from 348 cases and 470 controls in a population-based, case-control study conducted in Nebraska during 1999-2002. Risk for the highest versus lowest quartile or tertile of intake was estimated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs).


A lower risk of overall NHL was associated with a high intake of green leafy vegetables (OR = 0.6; CI = 0.3-1.0) and cruciferous vegetables (OR = 0.7; CI = 0.4-1.0). Analysis by subtype showed that green leafy vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of follicular lymphoma (OR = 0.5; CI = 0.3-0.8) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (OR = 0.5; CI = 0.3-0.9), while consumption of cruciferous vegetables was associated with a lower risk of DLBCL (OR = 0.4; CI = 0.2-0.8). No association was found with intake of total vegetables, carotene-rich vegetables, or all fruit. For nutrients, the risk of NHL overall was inversely associated with a higher intake of β-cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.6; CI = 0.4-0.9), magnesium (OR = 0.4; CI = 0.2-0.6), potassium (OR = 0.5; CI = 0.3-1.0), and fiber (OR = 0.6; CI = 0.3-1.0), but positively associated with a higher intake of retinol (OR = 1.7; CI = 1.1-2.8). Intakes of vitamin E, magnesium, and potassium were inversely associated with the risk of DLBCL.


A higher intake of green leafy vegetables and cruciferous vegetables is associated with a lower risk of NHL overall, particularly follicular lymphoma and DLBCL.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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