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Mens Sana Monogr. 2011 Jan;9(1):79-92. doi: 10.4103/0973-1229.77428.

Neuroscience and Values: A Case Study Illustrating Developments in Policy, Training and Research in the UK and Internationally.

Author information

1
Dphil, FRCP, FRCPsych. Fellow of St Cross College, Member of the Philosophy Faculty and Honorary Consultant Psychiatrist, University of Oxford; Emeritus Professor of Philosophy and Mental Health, University of Warwick; Editor, Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology; and Special Advisor for Values-Based Practice, Department of Health, London.

Abstract

In the current climate of dramatic advances in the neurosciences, it has been widely assumed that the diagnosis of mental disorder is a matter exclusively for value-free science. Starting from a detailed case history, this paper describes how, to the contrary, values come into the diagnosis of mental disorders, directly through the criteria at the heart of psychiatry's most scientifically grounded classification, the American Psychiatric Association's DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual). Various possible interpretations of the prominence of values in psychiatric diagnosis are outlined. Drawing on work in the Oxford analytic tradition of philosophy, it is shown that, properly understood, the prominence of psychiatric diagnostic values reflects the necessary engagement of psychiatry with the diversity of individual human values. This interpretation opens up psychiatric diagnostic assessment to the resources of a new skills-based approach to working with complex and conflicting values (also derived from analytic philosophy) called 'values-based practice.' Developments in values-based practice in training, policy and research in mental health are briefly outlined. The paper concludes with an indication of how the integration of values-based with evidence-based approaches provides the basis for psychiatric practice in the twenty-first century that is both science-based and person-centred.

KEYWORDS:

Classification; Diagnosis; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual; Evidence-based practice; Psychosis; Religious experience; Schizophrenia; Spiritual experience; Values-based practice

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