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J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011 Jul;53(1):11-25. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e31821988a3.

Skeletal health of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease.

Author information

1
Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA. helen.pappa@childrens.harvard.edu

Erratum in

  • J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012 Apr;54(4):571.

Abstract

Current evidence points to suboptimal bone health in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) when compared with their healthy peers. This compromise is evident from diagnosis. The clinical consequences and long-term outcome of this finding are still unknown. The mechanism of suboptimal bone health in children and adolescents with IBD lays mainly in reduced bone formation, but also reduced bone resorption, processes necessary for bone growth. Factors contributing to this derangement are inflammation, delayed growth and puberty, lean mass deficits, and use of glucocorticoids. We recognize that evidence is sparse on the topic of bone health in children and adolescents with IBD. In this clinical guideline, based on current evidence, we provide recommendations on screening and monitoring bone health in children and adolescents with IBD, including modalities to achieve this and their limitations; monitoring of parameters of growth, pubertal development, and reasons for concern; evaluation of vitamin D status and vitamin D and calcium intake; exercise; and nutritional support. We also report on the current evidence of the effect of biologics on bone health in children and adolescents with IBD, as well as the role of bone active medications such as bisphosphonates. Finally, we summarize the existing numerous gaps in knowledge and potential subjects for future research endeavors.

PMID:
21694532
PMCID:
PMC3122140
DOI:
10.1097/MPG.0b013e31821988a3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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