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Toxicol Sci. 2011 Aug;122(2):361-71. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr118. Epub 2011 Jun 20.

cAMP-dependent cytosolic mislocalization of p27(kip)-cyclin D1 during quinol-thioether-induced tuberous sclerosis renal cell carcinoma.

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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.


The loss of tuberin, the tuberous sclerosis-2 (Tsc-2) gene product, is associated with cytoplasmic mislocalization of p27 in uterine leiomyomas derived from Eker rats (Tsc-2(EK/+)) and in human metastatic renal cell carcinoma tissue. Signaling associated with cytoplasmic mislocalization of p27 in renal cancer is relatively unknown. Renal tumors derived from 2,3,5-tris-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (TGHQ)-treated Tsc-2(EK/+) rats, and null for tuberin, display elevated nuclear and cytosolic p27, with parallel increases in cytosolic cyclin D1 levels. Similar changes are observed in TGHQ-transformed renal epithelial cells derived from Tsc-2(EK/+) rats (QTRRE cells), which, in addition to the cytoplasmic mislocalization of p27 and cyclin D1, exhibit high ERK, B-Raf, and Raf-1 kinase activity. Renal tumor xenografts, derived from subcutaneous injection of QTRRE cells into nude mice, also display increases in cytosolic mislocalization of p27 and cyclin D1. Dibutyryl cAMP and/or phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PIs; pentoxifylline or theophylline) increase Rap1B activation, B-Raf kinase activity, and cytosolic p27/cyclin D1 protein levels in QTRRE cells. Inhibition of Raf kinases with either sorafenib or B-Raf small interfering RNA (siRNA) caused a mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated downregulation of p27. Moreover, decreases in cyclin D1 were also associated with p27 siRNA knockdown in QTRRE cells. Finally, theophylline-mediated increases in p27 and cyclin D1 were attenuated by sorafenib, which modulated Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. Collectively, these data suggest that the cAMP/Rap1B/B-Raf pathway modulates the expression of p27 and the cytoplasmic mislocalization of p27-cyclin D1 in tuberous sclerosis gene-regulated-renal cancer. Therefore, the loss of tuberin and engagement of the cAMP pathway may independently direct p27-cyclin D1 cytosolic stabilization during renal tumor formation.

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