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Resuscitation. 2011 Oct;82(10):1318-22. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2011.05.018. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

Health-related quality of life after a drowning incident as a child.

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Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.



To describe health-related quality of life (HRQoL), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and school performance in subjects having received either bystander or emergency medical service personnel initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after a drowning incident in childhood.


64 children admitted to pediatric intensive care (PICU) after successful CPR between 1985 and 2007. Eleven died in the PICU, 9 other within 6 months. In 2009 all long-term survivors, except for two, lived at home. Of the 40 patients eligible for the study, 29 (73%) responded to a questionnaire. HRQoL was assessed with the generic 15D, or its versions for adolescents (16D) or children (17D), and compared to that of general population. These HRQoL scores, age-specific survival probabilities, and HRQoL scores of the general population were used in a Markov model to estimate the number of QALYs gained.


Median age of the respondents was 17.3 (range: 3.0-28.4) years and 62% were male. At the time of drowning their median age had been 3.0 (range: 1.2-15.7) years. The drowning incident was associated with a significant loss in HRQoL in the oldest age group (total HRQoL total score 0.881 compared to 0.971 in the general population, P<0.01) but not in children (HRQoL score 0.944 vs. 0.938). When submersion time exceeded 10min mean HRQoL score was significantly lower than in patients with a shorter submersion (0.844 vs. 0.938, P=0.032). The mean undiscounted and discounted (at 3%) number of QALYs gained by treatment were 40.8 and 17.0, respectively.


A good HRQoL will be achieved in the majority of patients surviving long-term after a drowning incident in childhood, although HRQoL is affected by the submersion time.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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