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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011 Aug;93(2):260-7. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2011.05.031. Epub 2011 Jun 17.

Hospital admissions, emergency department utilisation and patient activation for self-management among people with diabetes.

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School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston, 4006, Queensland, Australia.



To assess the relationship between patient activation for self-management and admissions to hospital or attendances at emergency departments among people with diabetes, after controlling for other known associations.


Patients were randomly selected from Australia's National Diabetes Services Scheme and invited to participate in the Living with Diabetes Study, which is a longitudinal survey providing a comprehensive examination of health care utilisation, well-being and disease progression. Data was collected for 3951 participants.


Outcome events were defined as 1 or more hospitalization and 1 or more visits to an emergency department in the preceding 12 months. Logistic regression analyses showed six variables remained significantly associated with both outcomes: age, income, disease duration and severity, current depression and PAM stage. Patients at PAM stage 1 were 1.4 times more likely to be hospitalised (p=0.023) and 1.3 times more likely to have visited emergency (p=0.049) compared to those at stage 4.


Low levels of activation are associated with higher utilisation of hospital resources even after controlling for relevant factors such as disease severity and co-morbid depression. Most will be gained by moving patients from PAM stage 1 to a higher level of activation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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