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J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Jun;129(6):3756-67. doi: 10.1121/1.3578459.

Improved signal processing to detect cancer by ultrasonic molecular imaging of targeted nanoparticles.

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  • 1Cardiovascular Division, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8215, 4320 Forest Park Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.


In several investigations of molecular imaging of angiogenic neovasculature using a targeted contrast agent, Renyi entropy [I(f)(r)] and a limiting form of Renyi entropy (I(f,∞)) exhibited significantly more sensitivity to subtle changes in scattering architecture than energy-based methods. Many of these studies required the fitting of a cubic spline to backscattered waveforms prior to calculation of entropy [either I(f)(r) or I(f,∞)]. In this study, it is shown that the robustness of I(f,∞) may be improved by using a smoothing spline. Results are presented showing the impact of different smoothing parameters. In addition, if smoothing is preceded by low-pass filtering of the waveforms, further improvements may be obtained.

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