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J Health Econ. 2011 Jul;30(4):660-74. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.05.005. Epub 2011 May 23.

Measuring and testing for gender discrimination in physician pay: English family doctors.

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National Primary Care Research and Development Centre, Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK.


In 2008 the income of female GPs was 70%, and their wages (income per hour) were 89%, of those of male GPs. We estimate Oaxaca decompositions using OLS models of wages and 2SLS models of income and propose a set of new direct tests for within workplace gender discrimination. The direct tests are based on a comparison of the differences in income of female and male GPs in practices with varying proportions of female GPs and with female or male senior partners. These tests provide only weak evidence for discrimination. We also propose a set of indirect tests for discrimination, including a comparison of a GP's actual income with the income they report as an acceptable reward for their job. The indirect tests provide no evidence for gender discrimination within practices.

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