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Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011 Nov;13(11):1020-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01459.x. Epub 2011 Sep 2.

Effects of initiation and titration of a single pre-prandial dose of insulin glulisine while continuing titrated insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes: a 6-month 'proof-of-concept' study.

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Diabetes Research Unit, Cardiff University, University Hospital Llandough, Penarth, UK.



Stepwise intensification of insulin treatment to match the progressive decline of endogenous insulin secretion has been shown to be an effective management strategy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The efficacy of initiating and titrating a single bolus dose of insulin glulisine to baseline insulin glargine plus oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs) was investigated.


This was a 6-month, parallel-group, randomized, open-label, Phase IV study conducted in the US, UK and Russia. People with T2DM (HbA(1c) 7.5-9.5%) using any basal insulin underwent a 3-month run-in period on insulin glargine titrated to optimize fasting blood glucose (BG) control. Those with HbA(1c) >7.0% were randomized to either continue prior therapy (n = 57) or to add a single dose of insulin glulisine (n = 49) immediately prior to the main meal for a further 3 months. Two different titration algorithms were employed for the bolus dose, targeting 2-h postprandial BG ≤135 mg/dL (≤7.5 mmol/l; Russia and UK) or pre-meal/bedtime BG 100-120 mg/dl (5.5-6.7 mmol/l; US).


HbA(1c) and fasting plasma glucose levels decreased during the run-in period. In the 3 months after randomization, more participants in the basal-plus-bolus group reached HbA(1c) <7.0% than the basal-only control group (22.4 vs. 8.8%; p < 0.05), with significantly greater reduction of HbA(1c) (-0.37 vs. -0.11%; p = 0.0290). Rates of hypoglycaemia and mean weight change were comparable between the treatment groups.


In people with T2DM inadequately controlled on basal insulin plus OHAs, adding a single injection of insulin glulisine prior to the main meal significantly improves glucose control without undesired side effects.

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