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J Clin Sleep Med. 2011 Jun 15;7(3):276-81. doi: 10.5664/JCSM.1072.

An e-mail delivered CBT for sleep-health program for college students: effects on sleep quality and depression symptoms.

Author information

1
Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Clin Sleep Med. 2011 Aug 15;7(4):420. Tailor, Craig Barr [corrected to Taylor, Craig Barr].

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES:

We examined the effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program (Refresh) to improve sleep, on sleep quality and symptoms of depression among first-year college students.

METHODS:

Students in one residence hall (n = 48) participated in Refresh and students in another residence hall (n = 53) participated in a program of equal length (Breathe) designed to improve mood and increase resilience to stress. Both programs were delivered by e-mail in 8 weekly PDF files. Of these, 19 Refresh program participants and 15 Breathe program participants reported poor sleep quality at baseline (scores ≥ 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]). Participants completed the PSQI and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and post-intervention.

RESULTS:

Among students with poor sleep (PSQI > 5) at baseline, participation in Refresh was associated with greater improvements in sleep quality and greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in Breathe. Among students with high sleep quality at baseline there was no difference in baseline to post-intervention changes in sleep (PSQI) or depressive symptom severity (CES-D).

CONCLUSIONS:

A cognitive behavioral sleep improvement program delivered by e-mail may be a cost effective way for students with poor sleep quality to improve their sleep and reduce depressive symptoms. An important remaining question is whether improving sleep will also reduce risk for future depression.

KEYWORDS:

Insomnia; depression; prevention

PMID:
21677898
PMCID:
PMC3113967
DOI:
10.5664/JCSM.1072
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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