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Neuroepidemiology. 2011;36(4):213-22. doi: 10.1159/000327915. Epub 2011 Jun 16.

Meta-analysis of homogeneous subgroups reveals association between PDE4D gene variants and ischemic stroke.

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Interdisciplinary Program in Bioinformatics, College of Natural Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.



An Icelandic study showed a significant positive association between phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene variants and stroke. However, subsequent studies reported conflicting results, possibly due to small sample sizes and the heterogeneity of the studies.


We performed a meta-analysis on 6 SNPs of the PDE4D gene to investigate the association between this gene and ischemic stroke by integrating the results of previous studies, comprising 11,834 cases and 15,233 controls. A pooled genotypic odds ratio (OR) for each SNP was determined under 3 genetic models (i.e. dominant, recessive, and codominant) using both fixed- and random-effects models with consideration for heterogeneity and publication bias across studies.


Among the SNPs included in this study, SNP56 (rs702553) showed the most significant association with ischemic stroke in a meta-analysis comprised of 7 homogenous studies. The overall OR of the TT genotype compared to the AA genotype was 1.29 (95% CI 1.03-1.61; p = 0.022). For SNP83 (rs966221), a protective effect of the ancestral allele T was observed only in Asian populations (ORTT 0.79, 95% CI 0.69-0.90; p = 0.0005). This meta-analysis revealed a significant association of PDE4D gene variants with the risk of ischemic stroke, and further investigations are warranted to evaluate possible ethnic-specific effects.

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