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J Biol Chem. 2011 Aug 5;286(31):27471-82. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.260547. Epub 2011 Jun 13.

Selenoprotein-dependent up-regulation of hematopoietic prostaglandin D2 synthase in macrophages is mediated through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma.

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  • 1Graduate Program in Molecular Toxicology, Center for Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.


The plasticity of macrophages is evident from their dual role in inflammation and resolution of inflammation that are accompanied by changes in the transcriptome and metabolome. Along these lines, we have previously demonstrated that the micronutrient selenium increases macrophage production of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived anti-inflammatory 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) and decreases the proinflammatory PGE(2). Here, we hypothesized that selenium modulated the metabolism of AA by a differential regulation of various prostaglandin (PG) synthases favoring the production of PGD(2) metabolites, Δ(12)-PGJ(2) and 15d-PGJ(2). A dose-dependent increase in the expression of hematopoietic-PGD(2) synthase (H-PGDS) by selenium and a corresponding increase in Δ(12)-PGJ(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) in RAW264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages was observed. Studies with organic non-bioavailable forms of selenium and the genetic manipulation of cellular selenium incorporation machinery indicated that selenoproteins were necessary for H-PGDS expression and 15d-PGJ(2) production. Treatment of selenium-deficient macrophages with rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligand, up-regulated H-PGDS. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated the presence of an active peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-response element in murine Hpgds promoter suggesting a positive feedback mechanism of H-PGDS expression. Alternatively, the expression of nuclear factor-κB-dependent thromboxane synthase and microsomal PGE(2) synthase was down-regulated by selenium. Using a Friend virus infection model of murine leukemia, the onset of leukemia was observed only in selenium-deficient and indomethacin-treated selenium-supplemented mice but not in the selenium-supplemented group or those treated with 15d-PGJ(2). These results suggest the importance of selenium in the shunting of AA metabolism toward the production of PGD(2) metabolites, which may have clinical implications.

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