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Nano Lett. 2011 Jul 13;11(7):2949-54. doi: 10.1021/nl201470j. Epub 2011 Jun 14.

Interconnected silicon hollow nanospheres for lithium-ion battery anodes with long cycle life.

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.


Silicon is a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity. However, volume changes during cycling cause pulverization and capacity fade, and improving cycle life is a major research challenge. Here, we report a novel interconnected Si hollow nanosphere electrode that is capable of accommodating large volume changes without pulverization during cycling. We achieved the high initial discharge capacity of 2725 mAh g(-1) with less than 8% capacity degradation every hundred cycles for 700 total cycles. Si hollow sphere electrodes also show a Coulombic efficiency of 99.5% in later cycles. Superior rate capability is demonstrated and attributed to fast lithium diffusion in the interconnected Si hollow structure.

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