Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Hum Genet. 2011 Aug;130(2):265-80. doi: 10.1007/s00439-011-1024-7. Epub 2011 Jun 12.

X-inactivation and X-reactivation: epigenetic hallmarks of mammalian reproduction and pluripotent stem cells.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. payer@molbio.mgh.harvard.edu

Abstract

X-chromosome inactivation is an epigenetic hallmark of mammalian development. Chromosome-wide regulation of the X-chromosome is essential in embryonic and germ cell development. In the male germline, the X-chromosome goes through meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, and the chromosome-wide silencing is maintained from meiosis into spermatids before the transmission to female embryos. In early female mouse embryos, X-inactivation is imprinted to occur on the paternal X-chromosome, representing the epigenetic programs acquired in both parental germlines. Recent advances revealed that the inactive X-chromosome in both females and males can be dissected into two elements: repeat elements versus unique coding genes. The inactive paternal X in female preimplantation embryos is reactivated in the inner cell mass of blastocysts in order to subsequently allow the random form of X-inactivation in the female embryo, by which both Xs have an equal chance of being inactivated. X-chromosome reactivation is regulated by pluripotency factors and also occurs in early female germ cells and in pluripotent stem cells, where X-reactivation is a stringent marker of naive ground state pluripotency. Here we summarize recent progress in the study of X-inactivation and X-reactivation during mammalian reproduction and development as well as in pluripotent stem cells.

PMID:
21667284
PMCID:
PMC3744832
DOI:
10.1007/s00439-011-1024-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center