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Cell Tissue Res. 2012 Mar;347(3):759-74. doi: 10.1007/s00441-011-1185-7. Epub 2011 Jun 11.

Regeneration of skeletal muscle.

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  • 1McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Bridgeside Point 2, 450 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA.


Skeletal muscle has a robust capacity for regeneration following injury. However, few if any effective therapeutic options for volumetric muscle loss are available. Autologous muscle grafts or muscle transposition represent possible salvage procedures for the restoration of mass and function but these approaches have limited success and are plagued by associated donor site morbidity. Cell-based therapies are in their infancy and, to date, have largely focused on hereditary disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. An unequivocal need exists for regenerative medicine strategies that can enhance or induce de novo formation of functional skeletal muscle as a treatment for congenital absence or traumatic loss of tissue. In this review, the three stages of skeletal muscle regeneration and the potential pitfalls in the development of regenerative medicine strategies for the restoration of functional skeletal muscle in situ are discussed.

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