Send to

Choose Destination
J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2011 Jul;15(3):291-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2010.06.002. Epub 2010 Jun 25.

Breathing and temporomandibular joint disease.

Author information

The Auckland Regional Pain Service, Auckland District Health Board, 10 Owens Road, Epsom, Auckland 1023, New Zealand.


Temporomandibular joint disease (TMD) refers to a collection of pain related conditions in the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joint. Occlusal factors have been implicated in TMD pathogenesis, yet despite decades of research no causal relationship between occlusion and TMD has been found. The significance of psychosocial factors in both the assessment and the long-term management of patients with TMD is receiving increased recognition. The teaching of relaxation skills and coping strategies are effective, proven TMD therapies. The role of breathing re-education in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders is rarely mentioned. A focus on breathing patterns and their disorders potentially explains how biomechanical factors associated with psychosocial influences might lead to pathophysiological changes within the TMJ as well as in the associated muscles. Attention to factors such as breathing and postural rehabilitation provides health professionals valuable, additional tools to help care for patients with TMD.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center