Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Cell Death Differ. 2011 Oct;18(10):1651-63. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2011.80. Epub 2011 Jun 10.

Intracellular zinc release-activated ERK-dependent GSK-3β-p53 and Noxa-Mcl-1 signaling are both involved in cardiac ischemic-reperfusion injury.

Author information

Institute of Physiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.


Oxidative stress and nitrosative stress are both suggested to be involved in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Using time-lapse confocal microscopy of cardiomyocytes and high-affinity O(2)(-•) and Zn(2+) probes, this study is the first to show that I/R, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) all cause a marked increase in the [O(2)(-•)](i), resulting in cytosolic and mitochondrial Zn(2+) release. Exposure to a cell-penetrating, high-affinity Zn(2+)(i) chelator, TPEN, largely abolished the Zn(2+)(i) release and markedly protected myocytes from I/R-, ROS-, RNS-, or Zn(2+)/K(+) (Zn(2+)(i) supplementation)-induced myocyte apoptosis for at least 24 h after TPEN removal. Flavonoids and U0126 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor) largely inhibited the myocyte apoptosis and the TPEN-sensitive I/R- or Zn(2+)(i) supplement-induced persistent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, dephosphorylation of p-Ser9 on glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and the translocation into and accumulation of p-Tyr216 GSK-3β and p53 in, the nucleus. Silencing of GSK-3β or p53 expression was cardioprotective, indicating that activation of the ERK-GSK-3β-p53 signaling pathway is involved in Zn(2+)-sensitive myocyte death. Moreover, the ERK-dependent Noxa-myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) pathway is also involved, as silencing of Noxa expression was cardioprotective and U0126 abolished both the increase in Noxa expression and in Mcl-1 degradation. Thus, acute upstream Zn(2+)(i) chelation at the start of reperfusion and the use of natural products, that is, flavonoids, may be beneficial in the treatment of cardiac I/R injury.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center