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Clin Sports Med. 2011 Jul;30(3):551-73. doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2011.03.005.

Advances in management of the female athlete triad and eating disorders.

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Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sports Medicine Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.


Although there are numerous benefits to women from athletic participation, a complex combination of endocrine and metabolic factors exaggerates risk for a serious health concern: the female athlete triad. The purpose of this article is to provide updates on new issues related to the triad, specifically the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction-a potential fourth component to the triad that is a concern for future cardiovascular risk, public health issues, and athletic performance. Folic acid should be considered a potential safe and inexpensive therapeutic treatment to restore endothelial-dependent vasodilation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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