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J Public Health Dent. 2011 Winter;71 Suppl 1:S7-15.

What is a planning model? An introduction to PRECEDE-PROCEED.

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Department of Health Behavior, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky, 121 Washington Avenue, Lexington, KY 40506-0003, USA.


Planning models exist at a macroscopic level; they serve as an organizing framework for an entire health promotion effort aimed at fostering reduction in a given disease. A particularly useful, widely applied, and easy-to-follow example of a planning model is the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model (PPM). The PPM is very much an ecological approach to health promotion. The PPM is actually quite simple to understand once one realizes that it embodies two key aspects of intervention: a) planning, and (b) evaluation. The PPM guides the program planner to think logically about the desired end point and work "backwards" to achieve that goal. Through community participation, the planning process is broken down into objectives, step 3 sub-objectives, and step 4 sub-objectives. Conceptually, this approach to health promotion provides context to the use of theory, with theory being applied at the fourth step. This observation teaches a vital lesson, namely that program planning is larger and is a more comprehensive task compared to the subservient function of theory selection and application.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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