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Hypertens Res. 2011 Aug;34(8):957-62. doi: 10.1038/hr.2011.63. Epub 2011 Jun 9.

Sodium intake in men and potassium intake in women determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Japanese hypertensive patients: OMEGA Study.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.


Dietary intake affects hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) and their management. In Japanese hypertensive patients, little evidence exists regarding the relation between diet and MS. A self-administered lifestyle questionnaire was completed by each patient at the baseline. Three dietary scores were calculated for each patient: sodium intake, potassium intake and soybean/fish intake. The relationships between dietary scores and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The relation between dietary intake of sodium, potassium and soybean/fish, and the presence of MS was evaluated by the Mantel-Haenszel test. A total of 9585 hypertensive patients (mean age, 64.9 years; women, 51.4%) were included in this sub-analysis. High sodium intake was significantly related to increased SBP (P=0.0003) and DBP (P=0.0130). Low potassium intake was significantly related to increased SBP (P=0.0057) and DBP (P=0.0005). Low soybean/fish intake was significantly related to increased SBP (P=0.0133). A significantly higher prevalence of MS was found in men in the highest quartile of sodium intake compared with the lower quartiles (P=0.0026) and in women in the lowest quartile of potassium intake compared with the higher quartiles (P=0.0038). A clear relation between dietary habits and blood pressure was found in Japanese hypertensive patients using a patient-administered questionnaire. Sodium and potassium intake affect MS prevalence. Dietary changes are warranted within hypertension treatment strategies.

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