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Am J Bot. 2004 Jun;91(6):918-25. doi: 10.3732/ajb.91.6.918.

Phylogenetic relationships of North American Antirrhinum (Veronicaceae).

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Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 USA.


Species of the genus Antirrhinum (Veronicaceae) provide excellent opportunities for research on plant evolution given their extensive morphological and ecological diversity. These opportunities are enhanced by genetic and developmental data from the model organism Antirrhinum majus. The genus Antirrhinum includes 15 New World species in section Saerorhinum and 21 Old World species in sections Antirrhinum and Orontium. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were conducted for 19 Antirrhinum species, including all species from the New World, and 13 related genera in the tribe Antirrhineae. These analyses confirm the monophyly of Antirrhinum given the inclusion of the small genus Mohavea and exclusion of A. cyathiferum. The New World species, all of which are tetraploid, form a clade that is weakly supported as sister to the Old World sect. Orontium. The Old World species in sect. Antirrhinum form a well-supported clade that is sister to the remainder of the genus. In addition, both molecular and morphological data are used in the most comprehensive effort to date focused on recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the extremely diverse species in section Saerorhinum.

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