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Int Immunol. 2011 Jul;23(7):421-5. doi: 10.1093/intimm/dxr034. Epub 2011 Jun 6.

A trio of microRNAs that control Toll-like receptor signalling.

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School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the host recognize conserved microbial products and defend against pathogenic attack by initiating an immune response via signalling pathways that lead to an increase in immune and inflammatory gene expression. TLR signalling must be stringently regulated in order to ensure sufficient clearance of pathogens and a timely return to homeostasis after infection. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of gene regulators which bind to the 3' untranslated region of target mRNA and direct their post-transcriptional repression. They are global regulators potentially controlling up to 30% of the human genome. Several miRNAs have been shown to be up-regulated in response to TLR ligands, and many directly target components of the TLR signalling system, revealing a whole extra level of control of TLR signalling which is being extensively researched. The dysregulation of miRNAs may be involved in many inflammatory diseases and cancers and thus merits further investigation. In this review, we focus in on a trio of miRNA which have proven to be key in many immune and inflammatory pathways; miR-155, miR-21 and miR-146.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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