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Am J Bot. 2005 Feb;92(2):297-315. doi: 10.3732/ajb.92.2.297.

Piecing together the "new" Plantaginaceae.

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Department of Higher Plant Systematics, Institute of Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Wien, Austria;


Scrophulariaceae is one of the families that has been divided extensively due to the results of DNA sequence studies. One of its segregates is a vastly enlarged Plantaginaceae. In a phylogenetic study of 47 members of Plantaginaceae and seven outgroups based on 3561 aligned characters from four DNA regions (the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and the plastid trnL-F, rps16 intron, and matK-trnK intron regions), the relationships within this clade were analyzed. The results from parsimony and Bayesian analyses support the removal of the Lindernieae from Gratioleae to a position outside Plantaginaceae. A group of mainly New World genera is paraphyletic with respect to a clade of Old World genera. Among the New World taxa, those offering oil as a pollinator reward cluster together. Ourisia is sister to this clade. Gratioleae consist of Gratiola, Otacanthus, Bacopa, Stemodia, Scoparia, and Mecardonia. Cheloneae plus Russelia and Tetranema together constitute the sister group to a clade predominantly composed of Old World taxa. Among the Old World clade, Ellisiophyllum and Lafuentea have been analyzed for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis. The former genus is sister to Sibthorpia and the latter is surprisingly the sister to Antirrhineae.

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