Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Bot. 2005 Jan;92(1):142-66. doi: 10.3732/ajb.92.1.142.

The tortoise and the hare II: relative utility of 21 noncoding chloroplast DNA sequences for phylogenetic analysis.

Author information

Department of Botany, 437 Hesler Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 USA.


Chloroplast DNA sequences are a primary source of data for plant molecular systematic studies. A few key papers have provided the molecular systematics community with universal primer pairs for noncoding regions that have dominated the field, namely trnL-trnF and trnK/matK. These two regions have provided adequate information to resolve species relationships in some taxa, but often provide little resolution at low taxonomic levels. To obtain better phylogenetic resolution, sequence data from these regions are often coupled with other sequence data. Choosing an appropriate cpDNA region for phylogenetic investigation is difficult because of the scarcity of information about the tempo of evolutionary rates among different noncoding cpDNA regions. The focus of this investigation was to determine whether there is any predictable rate heterogeneity among 21 noncoding cpDNA regions identified as phylogenetically useful at low levels. To test for rate heterogeneity among the different cpDNA regions, we used three species from each of 10 groups representing eight major phylogenetic lineages of phanerogams. The results of this study clearly show that a survey using as few as three representative taxa can be predictive of the amount of phylogenetic information offered by a cpDNA region and that rate heterogeneity exists among noncoding cpDNA regions.

Free full text

LinkOut - more resources

Full Text Sources

Other Literature Sources


PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center