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Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Dec;164(8):2003-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01523.x.

Effects of aldosterone and related steroids on LPS-induced increased expression of inducible NOS in rat aortic smooth muscle cells.

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1
Division of Medical Sciences, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) is important in certain inflammatory diseases. We determined if the hormone aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) agonist, affects LPS activation of iNOS expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC).

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:

Cultured RASMC were treated with LPS, with or without agonists/antagonists of steroid receptors. iNOS expression was determined by nitrite assays on culture medium removed from treated cells and by immunoblotting of cell protein extracts.

KEY RESULTS:

LPS (1 µg·mL(-1) ) increased nitrite and iNOS protein above that in control (untreated) cells. These effects of LPS were reduced by aldosterone (0.1-10 µM). The MR antagonists, eplerenone (10 µM) and spironolactone (10 or 50 µM), did not inhibit these actions of 1 µM aldosterone, but the latter were prevented by 10 µM mifepristone, a glucocorticoid (GR) and progestogen receptor (PR) antagonist. Mifepristone also prevented the reduction of LPS-induced nitrite increase produced by 1 µM dexamethasone (GR agonist) and 10 µM progesterone (PR agonist). Spironolactone (10-50 µM) by itself decreased LPS-induced increases in nitrite and iNOS protein. Mifepristone (10 µM) partially reversed these effects of 10 µM spironolactone, but not those of 50 µM; the effects of 50 µM spironolactone were also unchanged when mifepristone was increased to 50 µM.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

This pharmacological profile suggests that aldosterone, and possibly 10 µM spironolactone, use mechanisms that are dependent on PR and/or GR, but not MR, to inhibit iNOS induction in RASMC. With 50 µM spironolactone, other inhibitory mechanisms requiring further investigation may become predominant.

PMID:
21649641
PMCID:
PMC3246663
DOI:
10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01523.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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