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Coll Antropol. 2011 Jan;35 Suppl 1:229-34.

Malformations of cortical development in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection - A study of nine children with proven congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

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1
University of Zagreb, Zagreb Children's Hospital, Department of Neuropediatrics, Zagreb, Croatia. Vlatka.Mejaski-Bosnjak@kdb.hr

Abstract

Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common vertically transmitted disease with the rate of the infection ranging from 0.2 to 2.4% in newborn infants. Congenital CMV infection causes multiorgan affection, but the most severe and permanent sequelae are those affecting central nervous system such as mental retardation, cerebral palsy, sensorineural hearing loss, chorioretinitis and seizures as a result of direct interference of the virus with neurogenesis. The time of acquiring infection is strongly connected to the level of child's disability. Infection in early pregnancy results in severe neurological sequelae, while later infection has less prominent signs. Radiological findings show connection between onset of infection and brain imaging, from lissencephaly, pachygyria, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, calcification, cerebellar hypoplasia and/or hypoplasia/agenesis of corpus callosum as a result of an early infection, to white matter abnormalities including disturbed myelination as a result of a late infection. We present nine patients with proven congenital CMV infection and malformations of cortical development and their computed tomography/magnetic resonance (CT/MRI) findings along with clinical assessments. According to CT/MRI results we assume that two of our children with lissencephaly had an early onset of infection. The other seven with less severe cortical dysplasia in form of pachy/polymicrogyria were probably infected later Cerebellar hypoplasia and/or calcifications in our patients also confirm an early onset of infection. Developmental outcome in all of our children was poor: moderate to severe psychomotor retardation has been diagnosed in all children; five of them have developed cerebral palsy (four have bilateral spastic and one dyskinetic) and one is estimated to have minor motor dysfunction. Seven out of nine developed epilepsy, chorioretinitis was found in three of them and sensorineural deafness in two of them. All of our children, except one, were presented by symptomatic infection, yet only four of them were recognized at birth. Therefore, congenital CMV infection should be considered as one of the reasons for childhood disability more often.

PMID:
21648339
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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