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J Vet Cardiol. 2011 Jun;13(2):115-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jvc.2011.02.001. Epub 2011 Jun 8.

Echocardiographic assessment of interventricular and intraventricular mechanical synchrony in normal dogs.

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Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.



The aims of this prospective study are to (1) generate normal ranges for interventricular and intraventricular mechanical synchrony in dogs, and (2) generate normal ranges for tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) velocity imaging and speckle tracking strain imaging assessment of segmental intraventricular mechanical synchrony in dogs.


10 prospectively recruited healthy dogs.


Dogs were excluded if they had abnormal historical, physical examination, echocardiographic, ECG or systolic blood pressure findings. Interventricular mechanical synchrony was assessed using time difference between left and right ventricular pre-ejection periods. Intraventricular mechanical synchrony was assessed using both M-mode and color M-mode septal to posterior wall mechanical delay (SPWMD). Intraventricular segmental mechanical synchrony was assessed using both color TDI and speckle tracking strain analysis of segmental myocardial motion during systole and diastole.


All synchrony measures were found to be independent of age or body weight. Normal range for mechanical interventricular synchrony was found to be -10.2 to 12.6 ms. Assessment of mechanical intraventricular synchrony using either M-mode or color M-mode SPWMD was found to be associated with an extremely wide normal range, limiting clinical applicability. Normal ranges for segmental intraventricular mechanical synchrony assessed using either color TDI or speckle tracking were found to be comparable to those published for human subjects.


Interventricular and intraventricular mechanical synchrony in dogs is independent of age and body weight. The normal ranges identified in this study form a basis for assessment of normal versus abnormal mechanical synchrony in canine cardiovascular disease patients.

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