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J Pharm Sci. 2011 Nov;100(11):4587-96. doi: 10.1002/jps.22650. Epub 2011 Jun 2.

Opalescence of an IgG2 monoclonal antibody solution as it relates to liquid-liquid phase separation.

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Department of Analytical and Formulation Sciences, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, California 91320-1799, USA.


Opalescence for a monoclonal antibody solution was systematically studied with respect to temperature, protein concentration, ionic strength (using KCl), and pH conditions. Multiple techniques, including measurement of light scattering at 90° and transmission, Tyndall test, and microscopy, were deployed to examine the opalescence behavior. Near the vicinity of the critical point on the liquid-liquid coexistence curve in the temperature-protein concentration phase diagram, the enhanced concentration fluctuations significantly contributed to the critical opalescence evidently by formation of small liquid droplets. Furthermore, our data confirm that away from the critical point, the opalescence behavior is related to the antibody self-association (agglomeration) caused by the attractive antibody-antibody interactions. As expected, at a pH near the pI of the antibody, the solution became less opalescent as the ionic strength increased. However, at a pH below the pI, the opalescence of the solution became stronger, reached a maximum, and then began to drop as the ionic strength further increased. The change in the opalescence correlated well with the trends of protein-protein interactions revealed by the critical temperature from the liquid-liquid phase separation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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