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Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011 Sep;30(5):343-58. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2011.05.002. Epub 2011 May 25.

Inflammation in diabetic retinopathy.

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Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University Hospitals Eye Institute, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.


Diabetes causes a number of metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, but which of these abnormalities contribute to recognized features of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is less clear. Many of the molecular and physiologic abnormalities that have been found to develop in the retina in diabetes are consistent with inflammation. Moreover, a number of anti-inflammatory therapies have been found to significantly inhibit development of different aspects of DR in animal models. Herein, we review the inflammatory mediators and their relationship to early and late DR, and discuss the potential of anti-inflammatory approaches to inhibit development of different stages of the retinopathy. We focus primarily on information derived from in vivo studies, supplementing with information from in vitro studies were important.

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